A Short and Concise Review of Hypnosis in the Twenty-First Century

1. INTRODUCTION

2. HISTORY
2.1. Franz Mesmer
2.2. James Braid
2.3. Hippolyte Bernheim
2.4. Pierre Janet
2.5. Clark Hull
2.6. Ernest Hilgard
2.7. Nicholas Spanos

3. DEFINITIONS
3.1. Hypnosis-as-procedure
3.1.1. Introduction
3.1.2. Induction
3.2. Hypnosis-as-product
3.2.1. Aptitude
3.2.2. Attitude

4. SUGGESTIONS
4.1. Facilitating suggestions
4.1.1. Ideomotor behaviors
4.1.2. Positive hallucinations
4.1.3. Memory creation and changes in identity
4.2. Inhibiting suggestions
4.2.1. Failures of willed action
4.2.2. Negative hallucinations and analgesia
4.2.3. Post-hypnotic amnesia

5. MECHANISMS
5.1. Dissociation theories
5.1.1. Executive control
5.1.2. Executive monitoring
5.1.3. Subsystems of control
5.1.4. Theory of dissociated experience
5.1.5. Theory of dissociated control
5.1.6. Theory of second-order dissociated control
5.2. Social cognitive theories
5.2.1. Social psychological processes
5.2.2. Cognitive behavioral processes
5.2.3. Belief
5.2.4. Willingness
5.2.5. Expectancy
5.2.6. Rapport
5.2.7. Attention
5.2.8. Cognition
5.2.9. Compliance
5.2.10. Motivation
5.2.11. Imagination
5.2.12. Absorption
5.2.13. Attribution

6. MEASUREMENTS
6.1. Hypnotic susceptibility scales
6.1.1. Harvard group scale of hypnotic susceptibility, form A
6.1.2. Stanford hypnotic susceptibility scale, form C
6.1.3. High hypnotizable persons
6.1.4. Low hypnotizable persons
6.2. Functional neurologic imagery
6.2.1. Functional magnetic resonance imaging
6.2.2. Positron emission tomography
6.2.3. Electroencephalography

7. UTILIZATIONS
7.1. Physical disorders
7.1.1. Pain
7.1.2. Nausea and vomiting
7.2. Psychosomatic disorders
7.2.1. Irritable bowel syndrome
7.2.2. Bronchial asthma
7.2.3. Atopic dermatitis
7.2.4. Psoriasis
7.2.5. Cutaneous warts
7.3. Psychological disorders
7.3.1. Smoking
7.3.2. Overeating and obesity
7.4. Psychiatric disorders
7.4.1. Anxiety disorders
7.4.2. Somatoform disorders
7.4.3. Depressive disorders
7.4.4. Eating disorders
7.4.5. Sleep disorders

8. CONCLUSION

9. FIGURES
9.1. Primary types of hypnotic suggestions
9.2. Functional units of the human mind

10. SOURCES





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